The Psychology of Being Sidelined: Part I

As many of you know, the National Alliance on Mental Illness sponsors Mental Illness Awareness Week during the first full week in October every year. This year, from October 7-13th, the NAMI will promote the theme “CureStigma” throughout all awareness events. In honor of such (and by special request from a number of you on Instagram) I’ve decided to write this week’s post on the psychology of being sidelined. It is an important topic to talk about and is often overlooked by healthcare practitioners and clinicians alike.

I’d like to start this post by first pointing out that I am not a psychologist, psychiatrist, or licensed clinical social worker. I am a Doctor of Physical Therapy by trade, but have also completed some formal education in the realm of sport psychology. At UConn, I wrote my Master’s thesis on voluntary and involuntary career termination, or retirement from sport, and the havoc this transition can wreak on an athlete’s life (…If, for some reason, you are interested in reading that paper, just shoot me a message and I’ll send you the 75+ page transcript). That being said, I will try to keep this post as evidence-based as possible, but I will also be sharing a little bit of my own story. I’ve gone back and forth in my head on how vulnerable I am willing to make myself with you guys, and I’ve decided to meet you halfway. I’m not going to air out all of my dirty laundry per se, but I will share some of my experiences with you, and if it helps even just one person, then I will have succeeded.

Last week, I was talking with another PT about different career development opportunities. She said, “I can’t believe that some people waste their time at continuing education courses on things like psychology, when they could be learning valuable manual techniques or other things they could immediately apply in the clinic.” Lately, I’ve been working on my transparency and communication with others, but I couldn’t help but just smile and laugh. What an idiotic ignorant statement. She literally couldn’t be further off base.

Last month, I “wasted” my time at the 2018 Micheli Lecture at Boston Children’s Hospital on the Psychology of Sports Injury and Rehabilitation. It was absolutely refreshing to see a room full of MD’s, DPT’s, ATC’s, RN’s, NP’s, etc. sitting down and talking to each other about the mental and emotional side of injury. When a patient walks through the clinic doors, we can’t just see him/her as an injured body part. Sure – the therapeutic exercise and manual therapy is extremely important, but I might argue that the humanistic aspect of treatment is sometimes the most beneficial for patients (*Shout-out to Sharbs for drilling that biopsychosocial model into the ground*). Great clinicians are those who are able to meet their patients where they are and then empower them to take control over their recovery process. I’ve been super blessed to have encountered a number of great clinicians throughout the course of my athletic career, and if it wasn’t for their encouragement and support, I’m not sure I would have bounced back as many times as I did. Now, I’m trying my best to pay it forward and be that clinician for someone else.

So – let’s talk about mental health. One in five Americans is affected by mental illness. There is a plethora of research supporting the causative relationship between athletic injury and depression/anxiety. With an estimated 40-50% of collegiate student-athletes sustaining an injury during participation in NCAA-sanctioned sports, it is no mystery that a large portion of them also suffer from subsequent depression or anxiety. The National College Health Assessment surveys showed that about 31% of male and 48% of female NCAA student-athletes reported either anxiety or depressive symptoms annually during the 2008 and 2012 academic years. That’s insane. Nearly half of all NCAA female student-athletes have experienced, or are currently experiencing, anxiety or depressive symptoms. Unfortunately, the stigma associated with mental health disorders often shames athletes into silence and prevents them from seeking formal help. This toxic environment of shame, fear, and silence won’t change unless we consciously act to change it. So let’s change it.

We all know that soccer can be a pretty brutal contact sport. Over the years, I’ve taken hundreds of goal kicks, corner kicks, 50/50’s balls, and other player’s heads to the dome. New research is alluding to the fact that there may be a possible dose-response relationship between sport-related concussion (SRC) and depression. There is a 2-3x greater risk of depression after an athlete sustains three concussions. There is also a 2.9x greater incidence in depression and anxiety in athletes who sustain musculoskeletal (MSK) injury while participating in their sport. So… If I’ve tallied four SRC and four MSK ACL tears, where does that put me? I’m not a mathematician, but you could probably guess that I’m dealing with my fair share of depression and anxiety. Spoiler alert: I’m a loose cannon.

PHEW! Now that I have that off my chest, let’s talk about some of the common psychological issues athletes face when recovering from an ACL tear.

Athletes rehabbing an ACL injury often experience fear, isolation, loss of identity, loss of purpose, depression, and/or anxiety. Cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses have been well documented throughout the course of ACL rehabilitation, and while there are general trends that emerge in the research, it is important to note that there is tremendous variability in how an athlete responds psychologically during rehabilitation. In general, self-efficacy and perceived “percent rehabilitated” tends to increase over the course of rehabilitation. Pain and emotional distress (including stress, depression, frustration, and anxiety) tends to decrease over the course of rehabilitation. However, some athletes are predisposed to experience this emotional distress more than others. Athletes who demonstrate high levels of self-identification with the athlete role, pain, pain catastrophizing, and/or neuroticism (i.e. baseline depression/anxiety) tend to experience more emotional distress with ACL injury. While strong self-identification with the athlete role can have its downs, it is also predictive of adherence to rehabilitation. Rehab professionals can predict which patients will be compliant with their therapy by identifying those with strong athletic identity, self-motivation, agreeableness/conscientiousness/openness to experience, belief in efficacy of treatment, self-efficacy, and those who participate in goal-setting, positive self-talk, and imagery.

I plan on writing another post on the Return to Sport process and the different tests/measures PT’s should employ with their athletes post ACL-R, but let’s keep rolling with this mental health thing. Did you know that, on average, only 81% of people return to sport following ACL reconstruction, only 65% return to their pre-injury level of sport, and only 55% return to competitive-level sport after surgery? Multiple narrative and systematic reviews of literature have been conducted suggesting that athletes are less likely to return to sport after ACL reconstruction if, during rehab, they display re-injury anxiety/fear of re-injury, low self-motivation, lack of confidence in their knee, or low “psychological readiness” to return to sport. Interestingly enough, research also shows that athletes who are supported by certified athletic trainers experience an 87% decrease in depression and 78% decrease in anxiety when returning to sport.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is also a common manifestation in athletes attempting to return to sport post ACL reconstruction. PTSD is a constellation of symptoms including reliving the traumatic experience, needing to “hash out” the injury, ruminating over injury, nightmares, and/or hallucinations. One in 3 kids develop Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) following musculoskeletal injury, which basically means that the aforementioned symptoms occur for less than 30 days. Once you cross the one-month mark, it can now be deemed PTSD. One in 6 kids with musculoskeletal injury develop PTSD and have increased difficulty recovering from a psychological standpoint. This can manifest in increased heart rate or nervous sweating just by lacing up your cleats. I’ve seen statistics as high as 33% of patients with minor orthopedic injuries developing some sort of PTSD, with even higher statistics for athletes experiencing repeat ACL tears.

Athletes are often forced into involuntary career termination/athletic retirement due to “career-ending” injuries. I’ve done some qualitative research in this domain, and can tell you from both a scientific and personal standpoint, that career-ending injuries are a different kind of beast. I tore my ACL for the fourth time a year ago today. Physically, anyone can rehab an ACL tear. The body will inevitably heal in 6-9 months. The brain/spirit will take a little bit longer. If I wanted to, I could have taken my therapy really seriously and gotten back into top form to continue playing the sport I love. But after lots of self-reflection, I’ve realized that I cannot continue to play and jeopardize both my physical and mental health. I often joke about having PTSD when a soccer ball rolls by, but honestly, part of that is true. I spent the past 20+ years perfecting a craft that I can no longer practice. I’ve been working through that reality for the past 365 days, and I’m still not there yet. When interviewing the participants of my thesis research back at UConn, there were a couple of themes that emerged in athletes who experienced a positive transition from sport. They were: staying involved in sport, divesting from athletic identity, and finding a new focus. I have attempted to put some of these ideas into practice by getting involved in coaching soccer, exploring new hobbies, and starting the Just4Kicks Boston project.

If, for some reason, picking up fitness boxing and starting an educational blog is not for you – stay tuned for The Psychology of Being Sidelined: Part II, where I will be discussing the signs and symptoms of mental illness, as well as different treatment strategies to get you out of that funk and back onto the field.

If you or anyone you know is struggling with thoughts of depression or suicide, call the NAMI helpline at 800-950-6264 or text ‘NAMI’ to 741741.

References

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  2. Baranoff, J., Hanrahan, S. J., & Connor, J. P. (2015). The roles of acceptance and catastrophizing in rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18, 250-254. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.04.002
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  8. Brewer, B., & Van Raalte, J. (Executive Producers). (2009). Conquering ACL surgery and rehabilitation. [CD-ROM]. (Available from Virtual Brands, LLC, 10 Echo Hill Road, Wilbraham, MA 01095)
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  16. Noyes, F. R., Matthews, D. S., Mooar, P. A., & Grood, E. S. (1983). The symptomatic anterior cruciate-deficient knee. Part II: The results of rehabilitation, activity modification, and counseling on functional disability. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 65-A, 163-174.
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2 Comments Add yours

  1. This is awesome! It is so well written and inspiring! Great job!

    Sent from my iPhone

    >

    Liked by 1 person

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